Manufacturing Processes

Fusion molding is one of the oldest manufacturing processes, dating back thousands of years, in which molten metal is poured into an expensive ceramic mold. The mold is created using a wax pattern – a one-time piece in the shape of the desired part. The cartridge packed or “invested” in a ceramic slurry that hardens the mold. Investment casting often call “lost wax casting” because the wax pattern is melted from the mold after it create. investment casting manufacturer india

Lox-wax processes are one-to-one. Which increases production time and cost compared to other molding processes. However, because the mold breaks during the process, parts with complex geometries and complex details can produce.

Cementing formations

Cementing formations allow the use of most metals, aluminum alloys, bronze alloys, magnesium alloys, cast iron, stainless steel and sheet steel are most often used. This process is useful for forming metals with high melting points that cannot be formed from gypsum or metal. Parts that are often manufactured by investment include parts with complex geometries. Such as turbine blades or weapon components.

High temperature applications are also common, including parts for the automotive, aerospace and military industries. Fusion molding requires the use of a metal matrix, wax, ceramic slurry, a furnace, molten metal, and any machinery required for sandblasting, cutting, or grinding. The process steps include the following: Pattern Making – Wax patterns are usually injection molded into a metal mold and shaped as one piece. Cores can be used to create any interior part of the pattern.


Many of these designs are incorporated into a central system of wax doors (spout, sprues and jambs) to create a wood-like composition. The sprue system consists of channels through which the molten metal flows into the mold opening.

Molding – This “tree of patterns” is immersed in a slurry of fine ceramic particles, wrapped in thicker particles, and then dried to form a ceramic shell around the patterns and gate system.

This process is repeated until the shell is strong enough to withstand the molten metal it encounters. The shell is then placed in a kiln and the wax is melted, leaving a hollow ceramic shell that serves as a mold piece, hence the name “lost wax molding”.


The mold heat in a furnace to approximately 1000 °C (1832 °F) and the molten metal pour from a ladle into the mold’s sprue system. Which fills the mold. Casting usually done by hand under gravity, but other methods such as vacuum or pressure  sometimes used.


After filling the mold, the molten metal allow to cool and harden in the form of the final mold.

The cooling time depends on the thickness of the part, the thickness of the mold, and the material used.

Extrusion Removal

As the molten metal cools, the mold may crack and the mold may remove. The ceramic form usually broke with water jets, but there are also other ways.

After extraction, parts of the neck system are separated by cutting or cold breaking (with liquid nitrogen).


Typically, finishing operations such as milling or sandblasting use to smooth the door section. Heat treatment also sometimes used to harden the final part.

Factors that shape the accuracy of the investment dimension There are many factors that affect the quality and accuracy of cast parts. The main aspects are substructure, material shaping, shaping, shell production and casting. Any error in the process can affect the rate of shrinkage, which can cause variations in dimensions.

Major step

The first major step in the process is to create a wax pattern; it must do with a great degree of accuracy. And precision. Dimensional accuracy affects investment casting factors Press construction The shape structure  influence by the thickness of the partitions. If it is too thick, they can increase the rate of reduction. If the wall thickness is too small, the opposite effect occurs. Too much free systolic frequency can prevent contraction and make it smaller.

Casting material

Casting material As with any form of pressing, the material has a significant effect on the results of the pressing. Low carbon content can reduce the rate of shrinkage. Wax injection temperature Injection pressure and temperature are two obvious factors that affect the results of the molding process. Damage due to improper wax injection Shell The type of material chosen to make the casing can affect the speed reduction. Some materials, such as zirconia sand, have a small coefficient of expansion and are good for this process. Shell Heating Incorrect heating of the jacket can have a negative effect and result in a slight expansion of the jacket.

Casting temperature

Casting The casting temperature is the temperature at which the molten metal enters the gates. If the temperature is too high, it may cause defects such as coarse grains in the internal structure. Low temperature can affect the fluidity of the molten metal. The recommended temperature is 1650 °C (3002 °F). The main problem with improper casting temperature is shrinkage. The casting temperature must kept constant to minimize shrinkage. Higher temperatures don’t require more energy, but they can produce increasingly precise parts.

Good details

It is difficult to find a molding process that can produce parts with a minute and small details. This special nature of investment casting is why it chose to support the aerospace industry and use in the development of the first jet-powered aircraft. As society moves deeper into the age of technology, features that are flawless and allow accurate measurements become even more important.

Cutting the parts

From the initial pattern to the ceramic shell to cutting the parts, every step of the casting process designed to produce precise and accurate details with precision. Attention to the environment One of the guiding principles of modern business is sustainability. This is a clear advantage for the investment process. Patterns, wax, ceramic slurry and stucco coatings can reapply without creating waste. This aspect of the process makes it a popular production method.


Pressing can create very complex geometric parts with internal cavities.

2. Small (several hundred grams) to very large parts (thousands of kilograms) can make from it.

3. Any exact shape can produce.

4. Any material can be ferrous and non-ferrous.

5. It is economical, with very little waste: the excess metal in each casting is reusable and reusable.

6. Cast metal is isotropic. It has the same physical and mechanical properties in line and direction.

7.It is a process that is so adaptable to mass production requirements that large quantities of a given mold can  easily produce.

8. The necessary tools required for castings cheaper and easier.

9. Some metals and alloys produce only by pressings.

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