escort Mersin türbanlı escort İzmir türbanlı escort Ankara türbanlı escort Antalya türbanlı escort Bursa türbanlı escort Gaziantep türbanlı escort Denizli türbanlı escort Adana türbanlı escort Hatay türbanlı escort Samsun türbanlı escort Kocaeli türbanlı escort Konya türbanlı escort İstanbul türbanlı escort Eskişehir türbanlı escort Malatya türbanlı escort Kayseri türbanlı escort Sakarya türbanlı escort Balıkesir türbanlı escort Çanakkale türbanlı escort Aydın türbanlı escort Muğla türbanlı escort Tekirdağ türbanlı escort Yalova türbanlı escort Trabzon türbanlı escort Sivas türbanlı escort Ordu türbanlı escort Maraş türbanlı escort Manisa türbanlı escort Tokat türbanlı escort Rize türbanlı escort Amasya türbanlı escort Ümraniye türbanlı escort Üsküdar türbanlı escort Zeytinburnu türbanlı escort Çeşme türbanlı escort Sincan türbanlı escort Gaziemir türbanlı escort İskenderun türbanlı escort Buca türbanlı escort Çubuk türbanlı escort Marmaris türbanlı escort Torbalı türbanlı escort 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escort Belek türbanlı escort Gemlik türbanlı escort Esenler türbanlı escort Fatih türbanlı escort Selçuklu türbanlı escort Datça türbanlı escort Gümbet türbanlı escort Serdivan türbanlı escort Konak türbanlı escort Keçiören türbanlı escort Lara türbanlı escort Yıldırım türbanlı escort Beylikdüzü türbanlı escort Gölcük türbanlı escort Karşıyaka türbanlı escort Çankaya türbanlı escort Manavgat türbanlı escort Nilüfer türbanlı escort Arnavutköy türbanlı escort Gebze türbanlı escort Beyşehir türbanlı escort Silifke türbanlı escort Atakum türbanlı escort Çorlu türbanlı escort Didim türbanlı escort Kuşadası türbanlı escort Merzifon türbanlı escort Bandırma türbanlı escort Antakya türbanlı escort Ceyhan türbanlı escort Battalgazi türbanlı escort Elbistan türbanlı escort Bodrum türbanlı escort Akşehir türbanlı escort Tarsus türbanlı escort İlkadım türbanlı escort Çerkezköy türbanlı escort Bornova türbanlı escort Batıkent türbanlı escort Alanya türbanlı escort İnegöl türbanlı escort Orhangazi türbanlı escort İzmit türbanlı escort Keşan türbanlı escort Isparta türbanlı escort Bolu türbanlı escort Erzincan türbanlı escort Van türbanlı escort Yozgat türbanlı escort Zonguldak türbanlı escort Afyon türbanlı escort Bilecik türbanlı escort Aksaray türbanlı escort Elaziğ türbanlı escort Osmaniye türbanlı escort Şanliurfa türbanlı escort Giresun türbanlı escort Burdur türbanlı escort Diyarbakir türbanlı escort Edirne türbanlı escort Kocasinan türbanlı escort Onikişubat türbanlı escort Salihli türbanlı escort Milas türbanlı escort Pamukova türbanlı escort Birecik türbanlı escort Yıldızeli türbanlı escort Ortahisar türbanlı escort Malkara türbanlı escort Yakutiye türbanlı escort Zara türbanlı escort Yomra türbanlı escort Karatay türbanlı escort Mezitli türbanlı escort Canik türbanlı escort Efeler türbanlı escort Ayvalık türbanlı escort Kırıkhan türbanlı escort Pazarcık türbanlı escort Soma türbanlı escort Dalaman türbanlı escort Sapanca türbanlı escort Haliliye türbanlı escort Akdeniz türbanlı escort Terme türbanlı escort Söke türbanlı escort Karesi türbanlı escort Yüreğir türbanlı escort Payas türbanlı escort Talas türbanlı escort Türkoğlu türbanlı escort Turgutlu türbanlı escort Karaköprü türbanlı escort Samandağ türbanlı escort Yunusemre türbanlı escort Köyceğiz türbanlı escort Siverek türbanlı escort Toroslar türbanlı escort Menteşe türbanlı escort Kestel türbanlı escort Yenişehir türbanlı escort Yatağan türbanlı escort Urla türbanlı escort Korkuteli türbanlı escort Kumluca türbanlı escort Karacabey türbanlı escort Alanya türbanlı escort Manavgat türbanlı escort Fethiye türbanlı escort Kemer türbanlı escort Didim türbanlı escort Çanakkale türbanlı escort Aydın türbanlı escort Muğla türbanlı escort Tekirdağ türbanlı escort Manisa türbanlı escort Balıkesir türbanlı escort Trabzon türbanlı escort Elazığ türbanlı escort Ordu türbanlı escort Kütahya türbanlı escort Isparta türbanlı escort Rize türbanlı escort Kahramanmaraş türbanlı escort Yalova türbanlı escort Giresun türbanlı escort Yozgat türbanlı escort Tokat türbanlı escort Şanlıurfa türbanlı escort Sivas türbanlı escort Batman türbanlı escort Erzurum türbanlı escort Sinop türbanlı escort Kırşehir türbanlı escort Karaman türbanlı escort Kırıkkale türbanlı escort Bolu türbanlı escort Amasya türbanlı escort Niğde türbanlı escort Uşak türbanlı escort Edirne türbanlı escort Çorum türbanlı escort Osmaniye türbanlı escort Zonguldak türbanlı escort Van türbanlı escort Erzincan türbanlı escort Söke türbanlı escort Bodrum türbanlı escort Çerkezköy türbanlı escort Akhisar türbanlı escort Bandırma türbanlı escort Ayvacık türbanlı escort Akçaabat türbanlı escort Karakoçan türbanlı escort Altınordu türbanlı escort Tavşanlı türbanlı escort Eğirdir türbanlı escort Ardeşen türbanlı escort Afşin türbanlı escort Altınova türbanlı escort Bulancak türbanlı escort Sorgun türbanlı escort Erbaa türbanlı escort Viranşehir türbanlı escort Zara türbanlı escort Kozluk türbanlı escort Aziziye türbanlı escort Ayancık türbanlı escort Kaman türbanlı escort Ermenek türbanlı escort Keskin türbanlı escort Gerede türbanlı escort Göynücek türbanlı escort Bor türbanlı escort Banaz türbanlı escort Havsa türbanlı escort Osmancık türbanlı escort Bahçe türbanlı escort Alaplı türbanlı escort Başkale türbanlı escort Kemah türbanlı escort Nazilli türbanlı escort Fethiye türbanlı escort Çorlu türbanlı escort Alaşehir türbanlı escort Altıeylül türbanlı escort Biga türbanlı escort Araklı türbanlı escort Kovancılar türbanlı escort Fatsa türbanlı escort Simav türbanlı escort Yalvaç türbanlı escort Çayeli türbanlı escort Dulkadiroğlu türbanlı escort Çiftlikköy türbanlı escort Espiye türbanlı escort Sarıkaya türbanlı escort Niksar türbanlı escort Suruç türbanlı escort Yıldızeli türbanlı escort Sason türbanlı escort Horasan türbanlı escort Boyabat türbanlı escort Mucur türbanlı escort Sarıveliler türbanlı escort Yahşihan türbanlı escort Göynük türbanlı escort Gümüşhacıköy türbanlı escort Çamardı türbanlı escort Eşme türbanlı escort İpsala türbanlı escort Sungurlu türbanlı escort Hasanbeyli türbanlı escort Çaycuma türbanlı escort İpekyolu türbanlı escort Refahiye türbanlı escort Kuşadası türbanlı escort Marmaris türbanlı escort Süleymanpaşa türbanlı escort Turgutlu türbanlı escort Susurluk türbanlı escort Gelibolu türbanlı escort Of türbanlı escort Ünye türbanlı escort Domaniç türbanlı escort Fındıklı türbanlı escort Elbistan türbanlı escort Çınarcık türbanlı escort Tirebolu türbanlı escort Akdağmadeni türbanlı escort Turhal türbanlı escort Eyyübiye türbanlı escort Suşehri türbanlı escort Yakutiye türbanlı escort Gerze türbanlı escort Mengen türbanlı escort Merzifon türbanlı escort Ulukışla türbanlı escort Sivaslı türbanlı escort Keşan türbanlı escort Kadirli türbanlı escort Ereğli türbanlı escort Özalp türbanlı escort Tercan türbanlı escort Efeler türbanlı escort Didim türbanlı escort Çine türbanlı escort Dalaman türbanlı escort Menteşe türbanlı escort Milas türbanlı escort Ortaca türbanlı escort Seydikemer türbanlı escort Ergene türbanlı escort Kapaklı türbanlı escort Malkara türbanlı escort Salihli türbanlı escort Şehzadeler türbanlı escort Soma türbanlı escort Yunusemre türbanlı escort Ayvalık türbanlı escort Bigadiç türbanlı escort Burhaniye türbanlı escort Gönen türbanlı escort Karesi türbanlı escort Çan türbanlı escort Yenice türbanlı escort Ortahisar türbanlı escort Yomra türbanlı escort Perşembe türbanlı escort Pazar türbanlı escort Onikişubat türbanlı escort Pazarcık türbanlı escort Türkoğlu türbanlı escort Eynesil türbanlı escort Görele türbanlı escort Piraziz türbanlı escort Yağlıdere türbanlı escort Çayıralan türbanlı escort Boğazlıyan türbanlı escort Zile türbanlı escort Siverek türbanlı escort Karaköprü türbanlı escort Haliliye türbanlı escort Akçakale türbanlı escort Şarkışla türbanlı escort Gemerek türbanlı escort Oltu türbanlı escort Palandöken türbanlı escort Mudurnu türbanlı escort Suluova türbanlı escort Taşova türbanlı escort Toprakkale türbanlı escort Kilimli türbanlı escort Tuşba türbanlı escort Üzümlü türbanlı escort Çorum türbanlı escort Düzce türbanlı escort Erzurum türbanlı escort Kırklareli türbanlı escort Kilis türbanlı escort Kars türbanlı escort Karabük türbanlı escort Kırıkkale türbanlı escort Mardin türbanlı escort Kırşehir türbanlı escort Muş türbanlı escort Kastamonu türbanlı escort Nevşehir türbanlı escort Ardahan türbanlı escort Bartın türbanlı escort Karaman türbanlı escort Siirt türbanlı escort Batman türbanlı escort Bayburt türbanlı escort Uşak türbanlı escort Igdır türbanlı escort Sinop türbanlı escort Şırnak türbanlı escort Adıyaman türbanlı escort Ağri türbanlı escort Bitlis türbanlı escort Gümüşhane türbanlı escort Hakkari türbanlı escort Bingöl türbanlı escort Safranbolu türbanlı escort Boyabat türbanlı escort Kızıltepe türbanlı escort Üzümlü türbanlı escort Bucak türbanlı escort Kadirli türbanlı escort Ardeşen türbanlı escort Çerkeş türbanlı escort Gelibolu türbanlı escort Gerede türbanlı escort Dinar türbanlı escort Besni türbanlı escort Bozüyük türbanlı escort Eskil türbanlı escort Diyadin türbanlı escort Ahlat türbanlı escort Çivril türbanlı escort Bağlar türbanlı escort Akçakoca türbanlı escort Aziziye türbanlı escort Lüleburgaz türbanlı escort Şahinbey türbanlı escort Bulancak türbanlı escort Digor türbanlı escort Keskin türbanlı escort Bünyan türbanlı escort Kaman türbanlı escort Akhisar türbanlı escort Bulanık türbanlı escort Altınordu türbanlı escort Bor türbanlı escort Avanos türbanlı escort Adapazarı türbanlı escort Virenşehir türbanlı escort Gemerek türbanlı escort Kangal türbanlı escort Akçaabat türbanlı escort Erbaa türbanlı escort Tavşanlı türbanlı escort Çayeli türbanlı escort Suluova türbanlı escort Edremit türbanlı escort Ilgaz türbanlı escort Biga türbanlı escort Göynük türbanlı escort Çukurova türbanlı escort Kaynaşlı türbanlı escort Emirdağ türbanlı escort Gölbaşı türbanlı escort Söğüt türbanlı escort Ortaköy türbanlı escort Dogubayazıt türbanlı escort Güroymak türbanlı escort Karahayıt türbanlı escort Bismil türbanlı escort Horasan türbanlı escort Mucur türbanlı escort Babaeski türbanlı escort Şehitkamil türbanlı escort Espiye türbanlı escort Kağızman türbanlı escort Yahşihan türbanlı escort Develi türbanlı escort Doğanşehir türbanlı escort Afşin türbanlı escort Alaşehir türbanlı escort Malazgirt türbanlı escort Fatsa türbanlı escort Ürgüp türbanlı escort Akyazı türbanlı escort Eyyübiye türbanlı escort Şarkışla türbanlı escort Araklı türbanlı escort Niksar türbanlı escort Simav türbanlı escort Ergene türbanlı escort Fındıklı türbanlı escort Nazilli türbanlı escort Taşova türbanlı escort Susurluk türbanlı escort Çan türbanlı escort Mudurnu türbanlı escort Defne türbanlı escort Kozan türbanlı escort Sandıklı türbanlı escort Yahyalı türbanlı escort Patnos türbanlı escort Kahta türbanlı escort Pamukkale türbanlı escort Ergani türbanlı escort Oltu türbanlı escort Nizip türbanlı escort Görele türbanlı escort Sarıkamış türbanlı escort Yeşilyurt türbanlı escort Dulkadiroğlu türbanlı escort Kırkağaç türbanlı escort Varto türbanlı escort Fethiye türbanlı escort Kumru türbanlı escort Erenler türbanlı escort Akçakale türbanlı escort Suşehri türbanlı escort Of türbanlı escort Turhal türbanlı escort Derince türbanlı escort Ereğli türbanlı escort Erdemli türbanlı escort Bafra türbanlı escort Kapaklı türbanlı escort Pazar türbanlı escort Davutlar türbanlı escort Altıeylül türbanlı escort Ayvacık türbanlı escort Dörtyol türbanlı escort Sarıçam türbanlı escort Sur türbanlı escort Palandöken türbanlı escort Nurdağı türbanlı escort Tirebolu türbanlı escort Zile türbanlı escort Ünye türbanlı escort Selim türbanlı escort bursa escort bayan bursa escort bayan istanbul escort bayan denizli escort bayan düzce escort bayan malatya escort bayan erzincan escort bayan zonguldak escort bayan eskişehir escort bayan gaziantep escort bayan gaziantep escort bayan gümüşhane escort bayan hatay escort bayan hatay escort bayan ığdır escort bayan gaziantep escort bayan istanbul escort bayan konya escort bayan izmit escort bayan kars escort bayan kayseri escort bayan kayseri escort bayan escort bayan adana escort adıyaman escort afyon escort ağrı escort aksaray escort amasya escort antalya escort ankara escort ardahan escort artvin escort aydın escort balıkesir escort bartın escort batman escort bayburt escort bilecik escort bingöl escort bitlis escort bolu escort burdur escort bursa escort Çanakkale escort Çankırı escort Çorum escort denizli escort diyarbakır escort düzce escort edirne escort elazığ escort sivas escort sinop escort şanlıurfa escort samsun escort sakarya escort rize escort osmaniye escort ordu escort niğde escort nevşehir escort muş escort muğla escort mersin escort mardin escort manisa escort malatya escort kütahya escort konya escort kocaeli escort kırşehir escort kırklareli escort kırıkkale escort kilis escort kıbrıs escort kayseri escort kastamonu escort kars escort karaman escort karabük escort kahramanmaraş escort izmit escort izmir escort istanbul escort Isparta escort Iğdır escort hatay escort hakkari escort gümüşhane escort giresun escort gaziantep escort eskişehir escort erzurum escort erzincan escort tekirdağ escort tokat escort trabzon escort uşak escort van escort yalova escort yozgat escort zonguldak escort

Animals

Horse Heart and circulation

Horse Heart and circulation

The heart is the most important muscle in the body as it must pump blood rich in oxygen and nutrients to the entire body.

The right side of the heart receives blood from the body that is depleted of oxygen and is full of carbon dioxide (waste product) and pumps it to the lungs. The lungs take this deoxygenated blood, and remove carbon dioxide, while adding oxygen from inspired air. The left side of the heart and circulation receives the oxygen-rich blood, and pumps it to every part of the body. There are 4 valves within the heart, atrioventricular and semilunar valves, which keep blood flowing in one direction to prevent mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Deoxygenated blood flows from the body to the right atrium. It then goes through the tricuspid valve and into right ventricle where it is pumped through the pulmonic valve and into the lungs.

Once the blood circulates through the lungs it becomes oxygenated and returns to the heart. Here it goes into the left atrium, through the mitral valve, into the left ventricle, and then out through the aortic valve and to the rest of the body.

Horses are usually presented for relatively minor clinical signs in comparison with many small animals. It is relatively uncommon for horses to be presented with overt cardiac failure and the vets in chelmsford, therefore, must establish whether currently asymptomatic disease may deteriorate and become a problem in the future or whether clinical signs of heart disease, such as exercise intolerance, are a cause of heart disease or if the problem results from abnormalities in other body systems.

Unlike diseases of many other organ systems, cardiovascular diseases generally do not resolve but almost always become more limiting and may lead to death. In addition, cardiovascular diseases may be more difficult to diagnose because the heart cannot be seen and is protected so well by the rib cage. Therefore, evaluation of the heart depends on Heart and circulation sounds, the electrocardiogram, radiology and echocardiology.

Different Heart and circulation conditions

Anaemia

Horses become anaemic when they have a reduction in the number of red blood cells (RBC’s) or have inadequate haemoglobin within them, however, anaemia is probably one of the most commonly misdiagnosed disorders in horses and is not usually a disease in itself, but rather the sign of an underlying problem.

The purpose of the RBC’s is to transport oxygen to the tissues from the lungs and to return carbon dioxide for elimination from the body and if there isn’t enough oxygen the animal can’t perform. Tissue functions, like muscle contraction, can’t operate normally and the heart is placed under pressure to try and compensate.

Anaemia is most commonly seen as a result of blood loss, which can be internal or external, the destruction of red blood cells, immune mediated haemolytic aneamia (e.g. swamp fever), reduction in the production of red blood cells or secondary to any chronic disease. It may be caused by nutritional problems, for example iron deficiency or deficiency of vitamin B12, however, these are rare and most balanced diets contain more than enough iron to allow the horse to maintain normal numbers of red blood cells and the use of supplements containing high quantities of iron can actually be detrimental.

Read Also: 10 LARGEST DOG BREEDS & SLOWEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD

Arrythmia’s

The heart rate of a horse is usually 25-42 beats per minute and is determined by the electrical conduction running through the Heart and circulation to provide controlled, rhythmic contraction. The electrical impulse starts at the sinoatrial node in the muscle wall of the right atrium and passes across the atria. The atrio-ventricular (AV) node is then activated. From here the impulses pass through a collection of fibres known as the Bundle of His and then spreads through the ventricles causing contraction. This conduction of electrical impulses is seen using an electrocardiogram (ECG). An arrhythmia is simply an irregular beat, some of these are of little significance where as others can cause a reduction of the cardiac output and hence signs of heart disease.

Diseases of The Blood Vessels

Jugular thrombosis is when a clot forms in the jugular vein running up the neck. This clot is usually caused by tauma to the vein and is, therefore, a complication of any intravenous injection especially catheterization.

Heart Failure

The most common heart condition in horses is dysfunction of the heart valves and the animal will usually show no symptoms, other than a murmur, and monitoring is all that is required. The reason for there being no signs of heart failure is because of the body’s ability to compensate for the changes, however, as the condition deteriorates the body is unable to compensate any more and signs of heart failure may be seen. Any horse showing signs of heart disease should not be ridden to ensure that the rider’s safety is not at risk.

Murmurs

Murmurs are sounds caused by turbulent blood flow through the heart and can be classified according to how loud the sound is, graded 1 to 6, the position at which the murmur can be heard most clearly and the place the murmur occupies in the heart cycle, i.e. between which beats the murmur occurs.

Where the murmur occurs between normal heart sounds is the most valuable tool as this can provide information as to what motion the heart is making when the turbulence is caused. For example if the turbulent flow produces a sound after the first heart sound then the murmur is most likely occur during systole, i.e. ventricles are contracting and the murmur could be associated with leaking mitral or tricuspid valves.

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